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late blight of potato

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Share Your PDF File 3. Phytophthora: Economic Importance and Occurrence | Oomycetes, Early Blight of Potato (With Diagram) | Plant Diseases, Defense Mechanism in Plants (With Diagram) | Botany. It is caused by zoospores produced in foliage lesions (blighted tops) or present in the contaminated soil. The pathogen ( Phyhtophthora infestans ) have different mechanisms of survival and two infection phases in its life cycle. These dry rot spots remain firm and extend to about half an inch below the surface. De Bary. The second view is that the thick-walled resting oospores which are found in abundance in the infected tubers are the important overwintering structures. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. According to the widely held view, the fungal parasite overwinters as a dormant mycelium in the infected tubers. Late blight of potatoes and tomatoes, the disease that was responsible for the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, is caused by the fungus-like oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. It affects leaves and stems as well as tubers. It may appear as well at any time during the growth period of the plant. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! The disease spreads quickly when cool and wet nights alternate with warm moist days. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. The minimum relative humidity required is 91 percent with an optimum of 100 percent. It occurs in potato growing areas of the world. The released zoospores, after a brief period of activity in rain water or dew come to rest. Late blight, also called potato blight, disease of potato and tomato plants that is caused by the water mold Phytophthora infestans. The sexual phase seems to play no significant role in the life history of the pathogen. Both sexual oospores and asexual sporangia are dispersed by the wind to nearby plants, in which infection may occur within a few hours. The blighted leaves curl and shrivel in dry weather. Various methods of control of the disease are known. Low temperature and high humidity favour the spread of the disease. It affect s all potato producers (small-scale, commercial, seed producers, even urban producers) and the annual losses in developing countries are estimated at EUR 10 billion. The process is repeated. Under moist conditions they decay and emit a characteristic offensive odour. The disease can be managed with a timely application of fungicide, though epidemics can occur rapidly once crops are infected. The disease makes its appearance as small, dead, brownish to purplish black areas or lesions. It is destructive to the crop grown in the rainy season. late blight •Leave infected tubers in the field as long as possible so they will decay or show signs of infection and will be easier to remove. Under suitable conditions of temperature and humidity, the mycelium pushes out hyahne, branched, indeterminate sporangiophores through the stomata of the host leaves (E). Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? The infected leaves produce another crop of sporangia. Do not mix seed lots because cutting can transmit late blight. Updates? In severe cases of infection there is complete loss of the crop, Infection also results in the decay of tubers in the field and storage. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. This fungal disease is fostered by periods of cool, wet weather. Destroy all cull and volunteer potatoes. Effective control of this disease requires implementation of an integrated disease management approach. Each retracts its flagella and secretes a wall around it. The late blight fungus is especially adapted for growth under conditions where water is present and cool temperatures persist. Early b light is caused by two different closely related fungi, Alternaria tomatophila, and Alternaria solani, which lives in soil and plant debris. Dithane Z-78, and Dithane M-22 have proved more effective than the copper fungicides. Rowe, ed. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. (iv) Rainfall during next 24 hours, at least 0.1 mm. It grows and ramifies in the intercellular spaces absorbing nutrition by putting haustoria into the host cells (D). Late blight. The disease occurs in humid regions with temperatures ranging between 4 and 29 °C (40 and 80 °F). Finally, a rapid and general blighting of foliage occurs. The most prominent initial signs of late blight are brown spots or disease spots on plant stems. US-23). The elongation of the branch proceeds and a new sporangium is formed. They are liberated in a group through terminal pore formed by rupture of the apical papilla. The disease can occur in the seedling stage and the adult stage. Potato tubers develop rot up to 15 mm (0.6 inch) deep. This is accomplished by spraying with herbicides or flame throwers or by the use of mechanical vine beaters. It is worldwide in its distribution. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-3) Kullapuram (Po),ViaVaigai Dam, Theni-625 562 LATE BLIGHT OF POTATO Submitted by Course teacher Sandra Santhosh Dr.Parthasarathy.S 2015021112 Assistant Professor (Plant Pathology) LATE BLIGHT OF POTATO 1. Here are methods to help control the disease: 1. As a result the disease spreads during the growing season over large tracts under potato cultivation. The germ tubes show rapid growth at 21°C . 7. In other California potato-growing areas its occurrence is sporadic, depending on the presence of the pathogen and cool, damp weather conditions. The longer the zoospores continue to swim and greater their number, the greater are the chances of infection. The Great Famine in Ireland in the mid-19th century was caused by late blight of the potato plant. Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? The infected potato tubers are the primary source of inoculums for causing initial infection of late blight. These are applied before infection for effective control in two ways namely by spraying or dusting as follows:-. Late blight destroyed more than half of the tomato crop in the eastern United States in 1946, leading to the establishment of a blight-forecasting service in 1947. Infected seed tubers, tomato transplants, potato cull piles and/or other volunteer potatoes are ex… Potato tubers are often infected in the field after the tops have been blighted. It makes its entry occasionally through the stoma but more often it penetrates directly through the cuticle by a penetration hypha arising from an appresorium (F4). This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. On reaching a suitable host (potato), the sporangia germinate on the leaves (F). In cool and dry conditions the progress of the disease is slower and the wet rot phase is generally checked. What is its function? Late blight is the major limiting factor to increase potato production. 4. In the indirect germination the protoplasmic contents of sporangium divided to form a number of (usually 8) biflagellate zoospores (F3). • Firstly, by contact freshly lifted healthy and wounded tubers with diseased haulms and contaminated soil. Management of early blight and late blight. >potato blight that caused famine in Ireland in 1845 and some subsequent years and severe losses in many other parts of Europe and the United States. It is more common in moist, cool environments. Soft rot causes the stem to collapse quickly, turning into dark brown. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important food and economic product in the world.Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating oomycete disease resulting in potato stem and leaf death, and tuber rot.In Europe in the late 1840s, the late blight caused the potato to collapse to trigger Irish great famine []. •The current recommendation is not to store potatoes if more than 5% late blight or other tuber rots are present. There is brownish discoloration of the skin of those parts of the tubers which lie nearest the surface of the soil. Privacy Policy3. Late blight can attack many varieties of potatoes and most farmers use large quantities of fungicides to control this disease. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Omissions? The released zoospores invade the healthy sprouts and bring about infection. This measure will eliminate direct infection. Late blight is a serious fungal disease of potatoes. It affects potato, tomato and, occasionally, eggplant and other members of the potato family. It is worldwide in its distribution. Introduction to the Late Blight of Potato: Late blight is a serious fungal disease of potatoes. This results in the reduced yield. They form rudimentary haustoria in the host leaf cells but in the tubers the haustoria are more common and elaborate (club-shaped, hooked or spirally twisted). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The optimum temperature for the formation of zoospore is 12ºC (54°F). (iii) Mean cloudiness not below O.8°C on the next day. infestans produces sporangia and sporangiophores on the surface of infected tissue and the resulting white sporulation can be seen at the margins of lesions o (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. It consists of sporangiophores and sporangia (Fig. Phytophthora survives in stored tubers, dump piles, field plants, and greenhouse tomatoes. These are called clonal lineages and designated by a number code (i.e. In case you were wondering, late blight is the plant disease that is responsible for the famous Irish potato famine of 1845. Secondly, during crop growth, the zoospores and sporangia washed down the stems into the soil by rain come in contact with the tubers. The survival of the fungus in the soil in the Indian climatic conditions in any form appears remote. Late blight is a fungus called Phytophthora infestans, which affects tomatoes and potatoes. Share Your Word File According to Sato (1979), wet cool soil promotes infection but wet warm soil lowers it because cool water at 16°C or below 12-14°C favours indirect germination of sporangia and prolongs motility of zoospores. It affects both potato foliage in the field and tuber in the storage which can absolutely destroy a crop, producing a 100% crop loss. These are carried by wind to the healthy plants which are thus infected. A fertile branch or sporangiophore is thus characterised by 9 or 10 such swellings occurring at intervals. (ii) Minimum temperature 10°C or slightly above. Grosier (1934) who studied the biology of Phytophthora infestans reported that the sporangia are formed within a temperature range of 3° to 26°C with an optimum of 18° to 22°C. Late blight is the worst potato disease. Share Your PPT File. The infected sprouts emerge above ground and produce shoots which contain the mycelium (C). It should continue until the harvest time at 10 days’ interval. There are many different strains of P. infestans. The contents of the latter divide to form zoospores. Late blight is the most destructive of all potato disease and responsible for the Irish Famine in the middle of the 19 th century. Tuber infection is dependent on the germination of sporangia, release and motility of zoospores. Moreover, the temperature during the day is never above 22°-23°C which is favourable for the appearance of disease. Both the surfaces of foliage should be properly protected by adequate spraying delivered with a considerable force in the form of fine mist. 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