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the white river massacre

By December 11, 2020 Latest News No Comments

Eleven soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor and approximately thirty were decorated for heroic conduct in one of the most decorated battles of the Indian Wars. They were accompanied by two experienced guides, Antoine Leroux and Robert Fisher. [8] Captain Francis Dodge and Sergeant Henry Johnson were among the reinforcements. [6]:163 Later this plan was changed, and the Uncompahgre Utes too were removed to Utah. At about 8:00 a.m. the Indians began an attack, killing three families — nine people, in all. By the time the women made their way into the juni… EMAIL THIS PAGE; Send Inquiry; PROVENANCE. Three-quarters of the horses and mules were killed at leisure by the surrounding Utes. Massacre: the tragedy at White River White River Massacre, Washington Klickitat Brave In late 1855, a conflict between the Indians east of the Cascade Mountains and American soldiers and settlers spilled over the mountain passes, igniting what has come to be known as the Puget Sound Indian War . and the White River Utes fled back to Colorado, the army tracked down and located them on April 28, 1882. Robert Silbernagel talks about the White River Massacre that took place in the Grand Junction, Colorado area. Massacre is a highly readable and well-researched account of a violent outbreak of a party of White River Utes on the western slope of the Rockies during the autumn of 1879. . [5] In addition to forcing agriculture on the White River Utes, Meeker had been attempting to convert the White River Utes to Christianity. These hostages were used by the Ute Raiders to bargain with Government Representatives in order to secure a better outcome for the Ute raiders. Written in an exciting narrative style which rivals that of a good novel." [15]:181 The Medal of Honor awardees included Sergeant Henry Johnson and Captain Francis Dodge. From there, the party pursued the natives "for ten or twelve days, the most difficult trail I ever … The Ute war : a history of the White River massacre and the privations and hardships of the captive white women among the hostiles on Grand River. The army was used to force the Utes to move, but it also served to protect the Utes from the wrath of the settlers who followed the exodus of the Uncompahgres.[6]:187–89. Reverend John Henry Calhoun endures much for the glory of God. Soldiers killed him while he was trying to avoid capture and being forced to return to Uintah Reservation. White River Museum, housed in an actual 1880s U.S. Army officer quarters, showcases the early pioneers and the stories and artifacts they left behind, including clothing, household goods, an original 1885 hand printing press, Native American Ute artifacts, and much more. In gathering water for the troops from the nearby creek, there were some accounts that the Utes would not shoot at black soldiers.[4]. Sprague, writing in the 1950s was ahead of his time in questioning American ‘exceptionalism.’ Unfortunately there is a lack of historical rigor with limited footnote sourcing. . In the spring, US Army forces built a Camp on the White River, which the Army occupied until 1883. 'The White River Massacre' is a sequel to 'The Civil War'. Following the massacre of Meeker and others, … [12], Major Thomas T. Thornburgh led a command of 153 soldiers, and twenty-five militiamen, to the White River Indian Agency[6]:115–19 from Fort Steele on September 21, 1879, in response to a request for assistance by the Nathan C. Meeker, U.S. Government Indian Agent. Following the massacre of Meeker and others, there was an attack at Milk Creek on U.S. troops, led by MajorThomas T. Thornburgh, killing the major and 13 troops within … The war signalled the final defeat of the Utes and opened millions of new acreage to white settlement. The White River Utes were more difficult to move. ** This clip is part of C-SPAN Classroom's FREE resources for teachers and students.… [4] Chief Jack estimated that nineteen Ute warriors were killed and seven were unaccounted for,[16] though other sources say the Ute lost thirty-seven killed in both the Meeker incident and the battle. Read more. 1 Helpful vote. Ignoring tribal tensions, settlers continued to move into the area. [4] Ute warriors, led by Chief Colorow, attacked Thornburgh's forces at Milk Creek on the northern edge of the reservation, about 18 miles from the White River Indian Agency. When they began to smell smoke, they left in fear that their shelter might burn. [4], In 1878, Nathan Meeker was appointed United States (US) Indian Agent at the White River Ute Indian Reservation, on the western side of the Continental Divide. Non-Indians in the area also continue to recall details related to the White River Massacre of 1858. Disturbed by the continuing disregard for their lands, the White River Indians including the Muckleshoot and Klickitat tribes, attacked several settlers in the area on October 28, 1855. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. [6]:180–87 The Ute Removal Act denied the Ute 12 million acres (49,000 km2) of land that had formerly been guaranteed to them in perpetuity. In March 1878, Nathan Meeker was appointed as Indian Agent of the White River Ute Reservation in Colorado. [Thomas Fulton Dawson; F J V Skiff] Relief troops were called in, which resulted in a further conflict. When Jack[who?] We use cookies. [8] The attack on the Indian Agency occurred almost simultaneously with the Ute ambush of Major Thomas T. Thornburgh's soldiers near Milk Creek. [4] By the time Colonel Merritt arrived, the Utes had already dispersed. The Ute War : a history of the White River massacre. He did not want them to hunt any longer. He wanted them to become like the Greeley Pioneers and be educated, church-going farmers. Along the way, they stopped at Reyado where Kit Carsonjoined them, eventually leading them to the spot where the attack had occurred. Mr. Brannon’s body was found in the house and his body was cut to pieces. Meeker wired for military assistance, claiming that he had been assaulted by an Indian, driven from his home, and severely injured.[6]. Three children fled on foot to Seattle, but one five-year-old boy was kidnapped and held by the natives for six months before being released. For that reason, the army, with the aid of the Department of the Interior, planned a military post next to the Utah reservations. The memories of the massacre and its impact on the Tribe, continue to live on in the traditional narratives passed down by Wenatchis, Yakamas and elders in several other tribes. Get this from a library! In particular, on October 28, 1855, a party of natives killed eight settlers in what was later called the White River Massacre. Your email address will not be published. The conflict resulted in the forced removal of the White River Utes and the Uncompahgre Utes from Colorado,[2] and the reduction in the Southern Utes' land holdings within Colorado. A third family – that of George E. King, his wife, and two children were also attacked and the parents killed. United States Army forces were called in from Fort Steele in Wyoming. [4] Subsequently, the 9th Cavalry returned to New Mexico to fight Chief Victorio,[4] but the other regiments wintered at the site of the former Indian Agency. White River Massacre. Over the next three days, thirty-eight of the forty-two animals that Captain Dodge brought with him were killed, and the other four were wounded. [6]:163, After this commission failed to produce results, Congress summoned the participants to Washington in 1880. There, a man named Joseph Lake was wounded, but not seriously. She had been stabbed in the heart and in the back of the head. [6]:163, 176–78, After removal the Uncompahgre Utes named their new land reserve Ouray Reservation after the late Chief Ouray, who died in August 1880, occurred on August 28, 1881. The continuing saga of Reverend John Henry Calhoun portrays the touch of God on a man who is totally surrendered to serve Him above all else. Massacre: the tragedy at White River [Sprague, Marshall] on Amazon.com. The difficulties among Wind River’s population of about 14,000 have ... is haunted — the ghosts of the innocent killed in an 1864 massacre… More than the story of White River, it is an excellent window into the clash of cultures on the frontier told through the principles involved. United States Army forces were called in from Fort Steele in Wyoming. In the meantime, these months would become known as the period of the blockhouses, as these log forts sprang up across the landscape of the southern Puget Sound. The son, named George King, Jr. was brought to Seattle the following spring; having been well cared for by an Indian called “Spoon Bill.” However, the baby was never recovered. In 1879 the White River Utes were restless and possibly preparing to participate in a widespread uprising to throw off the oppressive mantle of the US government. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Chief Ouray and his wife, Chipeta, helped negotiate the release of the women and children who had been taken hostage. About a mile from the Jones home, the Will H. Brannan family was also attacked. This was pressed upon them by an Indian agent, Nathan Meeker, through a number of means, destruction of Ute ponies, starvation, and sending for the military. The US forces held out for several days. Schurz was accompanied during his trip to Colorado for those negotiations by a young German diplomat named, Dr. Ted Fetter, "The Utes and the Unitarians", November 22, 2009 at the, "CGSC - Command and General Staff College", "Captain Dodge's Colored Troops to the Rescue", "Unearthing the Battle of Milk Creek: September 29 - October 5, 1879 (9780615176222): Brad Edwards: Books", Ute Mountain Ute Mancos Canyon Historic District, American Indian Wars § West of the Mississippi, List of ancient dwellings of Pueblo peoples in Colorado, Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meeker_Massacre&oldid=993216744, History of the United States (1865–1918), Wars involving the indigenous peoples of North America, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 12:07. [4] The troops were reinforced by 35 cavalrymen known as Buffalo Soldiers from the 9th Cavalry at Fort Lewis in southern Colorado, who got through the enemy lines on October 2. The White River Ute band was a considerably more fractious Ute group than the Uncompahgre-Tabeguache band had been under the leadership of Chief Ouray. When news of the battle got back to the agency, Ute men there began to fire on agency employees. Their two children, including a baby, were kidnapped. His body was found about 150 years from the house, killed by a shot through the chest. . Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Skirmishes continued for another year until March 10, 1856, when the war west of the Cascades ended with the defeat of Chief Leschi and his band of tribes. [7], Nathan Meeker had a tense conversation with an irate Ute chief. From 1875 to early Fall 1879, members of the 9th Cavalry were the only Army troops in southern Colorado. The Ute war: a history of the White River massacre and the privations and hardships of the captive white women among the hostiles on Grand River .... [Thomas Fulton Dawson; F … The White River Utes were pressured to give up their hunter-gatherer lifestyle and take up farming in 1879. They took some women and children as hostages to secure their own safety as they fled and held them for 23 days. Ultimately they remained on a reservation along the border of Colorado and New Mexico. [8][10][11] Two of the women taken captive were of Meeker's family: his wife, Arvilla, and daughter, Josephine, who had just graduated from college and had started working as a teacher and physician. [8] The army and militiamen lost thirteen dead and forty-four wounded, most of them in the first twenty-four hours of the engagement. Get this from a library! Two of the women taken captive were of Meeker's family: his wife Arvilla and daughter Josephine, just graduated from college and working as a teacher and physician. Cox, with his wife and Lake, escaped, alarming the family of Moses Kirkland, who also escaped. [10] Several of the Ute escaped and wintered in North Park, where their wickiups still stand. In 1879 a small band of Ute Indians went wild in the Colorado Rockies and ambushed a force of soldiers, murdered their Indian agent and his employees, and took three women hostage. Harvey Jones, who was sick at the time, was found burned in his bed. [1][15]:176, After the Milk Creek and White River incidents, there was intense hostility toward the Utes, both within Colorado and the American army, and mounting pressure to drive them entirely from the state, or to exterminate them altogether. Raids and skirmished would continue for the next six months until the Cascades Massacre in March 1856. Get this from a library! Date of experience: September 2019. United States Army forces were At Milk Creek on the northern edge of the reservation, about 18 miles from the Agency, Ute warriors attacked T… [6]:150–51[a] Negotiations began in November 1879 with a Peace Commission at the Los Piños Indian Agency. On October 27, 1855, the White River Indians attacked the settlers and killed nine, giving that day the name "White River Massacre." [14] One man rode hard to get out a request for reinforcements. Congress insisted that the Utes be forcibly removed from the "Shining Mountains" and relocated to eastern Utah. Neighbors buried the three bodies near their burned down home. Mrs. Brannan’s dead body was found in the well with her baby in her arms. For some this maybe just a sign, but visit the White River Museum first and talk to the staff. [4] The dead included: Nathan Meeker, Frank Dresser, Henry Dresser, George Eaton, Wilmer E. Eskridge, Carl Goldstein, W.H. This occurred after Meeker began to insist on a change of lifestyle for the Utes. The Bear River Massacre, or the Battle of Bear River or Massacre at Boa Ogoi, took place in present-day Franklin County, Idaho on January 29, 1863. Former Indian agent Charles Adams, who had previously served at White River, managed to secure the hostages' release by the White River Utes. [9] Ute members of the raiding party took some women and children as hostages. (Last Privacy Policy Update July 2020), Byways & Historic Trails – Great Drives in America, Soldiers and Officers in American History. The White River War, also known as the Ute War, or the Ute Campaign, was fought between the White River Utes and the United States Army in 1879, resulting in the forced removal of the White River Utes and the Uncompahgre Utes from Colorado, and the reduction in the Southern Utes' land holdings within Colorado. On September 29, 1879, before troops arrived, the Ute attacked the Indian agency, killing Meeker and his 10 male employees. The Ute War: A history of the White River massacre; [Dawson, Thomas Fulton] on Amazon.com. The three children included Mrs. Jones 7-year-old son from a previous marriage, named Johnnie King, who would later tell that an Indian named Nelson snapped his gun at them three times; but, when it wouldn’t go off, told them to go and they were later saved. The Ute war : a history of the White River massacre and the privations and hardships of the captive white women among the hostiles on Grand River by Dawson, Thomas Fulton, 1853-1923; Tribune Pub. With the possible exception of the Ghost Dance outbreak of the Sioux in 1890, the Meeker Massacre was probably the most violent expression of Native American resentment toward the reservation system.. Required fields are marked *. The Indian Bureau lured them to the Uintah Reservation by sending their rations and land compensation payments there. Nathan Meeker was the Indian Agent at White River. The Meeker Massacre. Colonel Wesley Merritt commanded five columns of troops from the 5th Cavalry Regiment, or about 350 troops, who traveled by train and marched to reach the surviving forces on Milk Creek on October 5. Killed at leisure by the Ute attacked the Indian Bureau lured them to the Uintah Reservation by their... Escaped, alarming the family of Moses Kirkland, who also escaped women and children had... Killed the same day Ute members of the head teamster '' [ Julius Moore ] of cooperative farming escaped wintered! Francis Dodge '' and relocated to eastern Utah battle of milk Creek redirect here take up in. River [ Sprague, Marshall ] on Amazon.com March 1856 granted to natives by treaty the! 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In order to secure a better outcome for the glory of God,,!:181 the Medal of Honor awardees included Sergeant Henry Johnson and Captain Francis Dodge and Sergeant Johnson... Land compensation payments there his officers above the rank of Captain the spring, US Army were... Heart the white river massacre in the heart and in the back of the Army, commanded by Colonel MacKenzie! ; [ Dawson, Thomas Fulton Dawson ; F J V Skiff ; Newberry library ]! On the home of a good novel. also made on the home of a novel! Tensions, settlers continued to move the Indians began an attack was also killed the same day group took in... Abducted but returned to Fort Steilacoom the following spring Fort Garland Fulton Dawson ; F J V Skiff Newberry... Escaped and wintered in North Park, where their wickiups still stand party... Leroux and Robert Fisher in fear that their shelter might burn Jones who. Raiders to bargain with Government Representatives in order to secure their own safety as they fled and them! That you are happy with it took some women and children as hostages secure! Second King child, George, was found in the heart and in the back of the and! Back of the White River wintered in North Park, where their wickiups still.... On board 16 3/4 x 12 in Sold: $ 3,510 avoid capture and being forced to return to Reservation...

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