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coal definition science

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Heat - Heat or thermal energy is energy from the movement of atoms or molecules. Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. Updates? But above all is she rich in mechanical power—water-power and coal. https://www.britannica.com/science/coal-fossil-fuel, coal - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), coal - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Brace Yourself: October Election Surprises Surely on the Way, Melissa Rivers: Life After Joan—A Funny, Moving Celebration on a Special 'Fashion Police', The Boy Allies with the Victorious Fleets, Library Of The World's Best Literature, Ancient And Modern, Vol 4. It can be transferred between objects and can also be converted in form. Electrical energy is a type of potential energy, or energy stored in an object due to the position of the object. Master these essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time. Although the concentration of carbon in Earth’s crust does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight, it is indispensable to life and constitutes humankind’s main source of energy. Home / Science / Physics / Thermodynamics / What Is the Scientific Definition of Energy? Artist's recreation of James Watt inventing the separate condenser for the steam engine, c. 1765. Continued expansion of industrial activity in the United States and in Europe further promoted the use of coal. There are, moreover, heat and work—i.e., energy in the process of transfer from one body to another. Gasification may be accomplished either in situ or in processing plants. Science >> Physics for Kids. from a hot object to a cool object by conduction, convection or radiation. PLAY. charcoal … Energy. The energy of electric charge. By the early 1830s mining companies had emerged along the Ohio, Illinois, and Mississippi rivers and in the Appalachian region. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases generated by burning fossil fuels are considered to be one of the principal causes of global warming. What Do “a.m.” And “p.m.” Stand For? The simplest definition of energy is "the ability to do work". Physics for Kids. The ability to do work or cause change. Energy and heat in physical science. The discovery of the use of fire helped to distinguish humans from other animals. Coal was used commercially by the Chinese long before it was used in Europe. Stones used as fuel were said to have been produced in China during the Han dynasty (206 bce–220 ce). A dark-brown to black solid substance formed from the compaction and hardening of fossilized plant parts in the presence of water and in the absence of air. Biology, chemistry, and physics are all branches of science. Location of the most-important coal occurrences on Earth. see carry coals to Newcastle; rake over the coals. References to the early uses of coal are meagre. Stored energy. It takes energy to cook food, to drive to school, and to jump in the air. rake / haul / drag / call / take over the coals. Each one bore upon his back an enormous Chimera, as heavy as a bag of flour or coal, or the accoutrements of a Roman soldier. The unit of Energy is same as of Work i.e. What Is An Em Dash And How Do You Use It? In doing work, the energy is changed from one form to one or more other form(s). Dictionary.com Unabridged Successive metallurgical and engineering developments—most notably the invention of the coal-burning steam engine by James Watt—engendered an almost insatiable demand for coal. The energy of motion. By Staff Writer Last Updated Mar 30, 2020 11:34:43 AM ET In the study of physics, energy is defined as the capacity to do work. How to use coal in a sentence. But by 1974, the coal that had made the island so profitable ran dry, and gas had become the most sought after fuel source. Joules. Coal is really stored-up sunlight and the locomotive, devouring it, is devouring sunlight. This energy is transported to the sun's surface then released into space mainly in the form of radiant (light) energy. Gasification refers to the conversion of coal to a mixture of gases, including carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbons, depending on the conditions involved. Although no authentic record is available, coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China may have been employed to smelt copper as early as 1000 bce. Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation’s electricity. Amphibians were the dominant land vertebr… A hydrocarbon fuel, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from the accumulated remains of ancient plants and animals and used as fuel. Energy can mean various things: . Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. For a discussion of the coal-extraction process, see the article coal mining. What Is The Difference Between “It’s” And “Its”? Learn more about energy in this article. Coal is widely used as a fuel, and its combustion products are used as raw material for a variety of products including cement, asphalt, wallboard and plastics. Corrections? Coal is a combustible rock and, along with oil and natural gas, it is one of the three most important fossil fuels. a piece of glowing, charred, or burned wood or other combustible substance. What is Energy? STUDY. Power plant and coal mine in Bełchatów, Poland. Thermal energy. comes from natural sources or processes that are constantly replenished p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 11.0px Calibri} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} "As many people as you would ask to define it for you, they would say something different," Medina told Live Science. The capacity or power to do work, such as the capacity to move an object (of a given mass) in a given direction by the application of force. But if we want to understand the origins of coal, we have to look back much further — to a period called the Carboniferous.The Carboniferous (after the Latin name of coal) took place approximately 360 to 300 million years ago. If you plan a low-energy day, it means a day of lounging around. Since then coal use has experienced a steady decline, offset largely by increases in natural gas use. The American Heritage® Science Dictionary Four general methods are used for liquefaction: (1) pyrolysis and hydrocarbonization (coal is heated in the absence of air or in a stream of hydrogen), (2) solvent extraction (coal hydrocarbons are selectively dissolved and hydrogen is added to produce the desired liquids), (3) catalytic liquefaction (hydrogenation takes place in the presence of a catalyst—for example, zinc chloride), and (4) indirect liquefaction (carbon monoxide and hydrogen are combined in the presence of a catalyst). Coal is a major source of energy in the production of electrical power using steam generation. Coal liquefaction—that is, any process of turning coal into liquid products resembling crude oil—may be either direct or indirect (i.e., by using the gaseous products obtained by breaking down the chemical structure of coal). noun a black or dark-brown combustible mineral substance consisting of carbonized vegetable matter, used as a fuel.Compare anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite. I didn't say nothin' about the gold, but made believe I was huntin' coal. Free energy may also refer to the energy that powers a hypothetical perpetual motion machine. If you have a lot of energy, it means you like to be active. energy [en´er-je] power that may be translated into motion, overcoming resistance or causing a physical change; the ability to do work. This article considers the geological origins, structure, and properties of coal, its usage throughout human history, and current world distribution. In situ gasification is accomplished by controlled, incomplete burning of a coal bed underground while adding air and steam. With its high energy yields, low nuclear waste production, and lack of air pollution, fusion, the same source that powers stars, could provide an alternative to conventional energy sources. The general meaning of energy is the ability to be active. It may exist in potential, kinetic, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or various other forms. Energy can be classified as either potential (stored) energy or kinetic energy, which is the energy of movement. This lesson examines energy and encompasses the basics, the types, and the forms that energy takes. Coal is defined as having more than 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the compaction and hardening … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Potential energy. The Most Insincere Compliments And What To Say Instead. Many references to coal mining in England and Scotland and on the European continent began to appear in the writings of the 13th century. We Asked, You Answered. Coal was, however, used only on a limited scale until the early 18th century, when Abraham Darby of England and others developed methods of using in blast furnaces and forges coke made from coal. Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. a piece of glowing, charred, or burned wood or other combustible substance. “Nauseated” vs. “Nauseous”: Which One To Use When You’re Feeling Sick, The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. a combustible compact black or dark-brown carbonaceous rock formed from compaction of layers of partially decomposed vegetation: a fuel and a source of coke, coal gas, and coal tar, something supplied where it is already plentiful, to take in, provide with, or turn into coal. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. (kōl) A dark-brown to black, natural solid substance formed from fossilized plants under conditions of great pressure, high humidity, and lack of air. Energy, resources, food, water, and clean air are so intimately joined that the future of every country in the world is interminably linked; the health, economic welfare, political destiny, and national security of all peoples in the universe are at stake. The gases are withdrawn and may be burned to produce heat or generate electricity, or they may be used as synthesis gas in indirect liquefaction or the production of chemicals. Electric energy. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. (Definition of coal from the … All forms of energy are either kinetic or potential. Science is the field of study concerned with discovering and describing the world around us by observing and experimenting. Up to the time of the American Revolution, most coal used in the American colonies came from England or Nova Scotia. Describe 2020 In Just One Word? Coal definition is - a piece of glowing carbon or charred wood : ember. For a more complete treatment of the processes involved in coal combustion, see the article coal utilization. It may be considered as energy relating to temperature. For this reason, any process used to convert coal to alternative fuels must add hydrogen (either directly or in the form of water). Energy is found in many things and thus there are different types of energy. Coal consists mainly of carbon and is widely used as a fuel and raw material. “Have” vs. “Has”: When To Use Each One. Rail-mounted coal-cutting machine, 19th century. Energy resources and utilization are serious societal concerns today. A swinging pendulum has kinetic energy. Wartime shortages and the needs of the munitions manufacturers, however, spurred small American coal-mining operations such as those in Virginia on the James River near Richmond. Coal is an abundant natural resource that can be used as a source of energy, as a chemical source from which numerous synthetic compounds (e.g., dyes, oils, waxes, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides) can be derived, and in the production of coke for metallurgical processes. Information and translations of coal in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Coal has a wide range of uses; the most important use is for the generation of electricity. Energy & Environmental Science is an international journal dedicated to publishing exceptionally important and high quality, agenda-setting research tackling the key global and societal challenges of ensuring the provision of energy and protecting our environment for the future.. Kinetic Energy - Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. The first documented proof that coal was mined in Europe was provided by the monk Reinier of Liège, who wrote (about 1200) of black earth very similar to charcoal used by metalworkers. Definition of coal in the Definitions.net dictionary. Trump's confusing use of "clean coal" is par for the course; the term itself is fairly vague and has no set definition, said Shiela Medina, the associate director of development and community management at the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research. The biggest coal deposit by volume is the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, which the USGS estimated to have 1.07 trillion short tons of in-place coal resources, 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources, and 25 billion short tons of economic coal resources (also called reserves) in 2013. See more at anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite. Kinetic energy. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It's everywhere around us and takes all sorts of forms. Scope. Of Taylor Swift's many famous boyfriends: "She has seen more shafts than a coal miner.". For the motive power of the Plymouth was not furnished by coal. All rights reserved. Good governance would mean sticks and coal for too many of our favorite politicians. Some other types of energy include heat energy and light energy. 1. The most common definition is that renewable energy is from an energy resource that is replaced rapidly by a natural process such as power generated from the sun or from the wind. Meaning of coal. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012. Energy The Sun is the source of energy for most of life on Earth. After the tremendous rise in coal use in the early 2000s, which was primarily driven by the growth of China’s economy, coal use worldwide peaked in 2012. As in European countries, the introduction of the steam locomotive gave the American coal industry a tremendous impetus. It … It derives its energy mainly from nuclear fusion in its core, converting mass to energy as protons are combined to form helium. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. Law of conservation of energy. It can be stored, or it can be transferred i.e. The most common definition of energy is the work that a certain force (gravitational, electromagnetic, etc) can do. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. The aforementioned stories may very well be legitimate, but let's consider them a sort of canary in the coal mine. a black or dark-brown combustible mineral substance consisting of carbonized vegetable matter, used as a fuel. They were raked over the coals for turning out slipshod work. In addition, gasification and liquefaction of coal produce gaseous and liquid fuels that can be easily transported (e.g., by pipeline) and conveniently stored in tanks. Carbonaceous material accounts for more than 50 percent of coal's weight and more than 70 percent of its volume. “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. Copyright © 2011. Students gain an understanding of how energy works in physical science, and they also learn about heat and how it is transferred. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Potential Energy - This is energy due to an object's position. Coal is defined as having more than 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the compaction and hardening of altered plant remains—namely, peat deposits. a hard, black substance that is dug from the earth in lumps and used as a fuel, or a single piece of this substance: [ U ] Some of those schools still use coal for their heating. Such a device violates the laws of thermodynamics, so this definition currently refers to a pseudoscience rather than hard science. Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Energy assumes several forms; it may be thermal (in the form of heat), electrical, mechanical, chemical, radiant, or kinetic. Life can be tough in West Virginia, especially for the hardworking souls of coal country. Science energy definition. Aristotle referred to “bodies which have more of earth than of smoke” and called them “coal-like substances.” (It should be noted that biblical references to coal are to charcoal rather than to the rock coal.) Coal is still the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, though it’s being phased out in many parts of the world due to its impact on the climate. Can you identify the antonym of “protagonist,” or the opposite of a hero or heroine? Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Although most coals occur in stratified sedimentary deposits, the deposits may later be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures caused by igneous intrusions or deformation during orogenesis (i.e., processes of mountain building), resulting in the development of anthracite and even graphite. Mostly, it is used in science to describe how much potential a physical system has to change. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary In physics, energy is a property of matter and space, objects and fields. Vast deposits of coal originate in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous ( Energy is how things change and move. In general, coal can be considered a hydrogen-deficient hydrocarbon with a hydrogen-to-carbon ratio near 0.8, as compared with a liquid hydrocarbons ratio near 2 (for propane, ethane, butane, and other forms of natural gas) and a gaseous hydrocarbons ratio near 4 (for gasoline). Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? Early fuels were primarily wood (and charcoal derived from it), straw, and dried dung. Different varieties of coal arise because of differences in the kinds of plant material (coal type), degree of coalification (coal rank), and range of impurities (coal grade). Energy can exist in a variety of forms, such as electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, or nuclear, and can be transformed from one form to another. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. to repay evil with good in order to make one's enemy repent. Coal cinders found among Roman ruins in England suggest that the Romans were familiar with coal use before 400 ce. The energy in motion is known as Kinetic Energy whereas Potential Energy is the energy stored in an object and is measured by the amount of work done. Omissions? 5 people chose this as the best definition of energy: Energy is defined as the... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. Energy. But, generally speaking, "clean coal" refers to … Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. Energy, in physics, the capacity for doing work. Coal, one of the most important primary fossil fuels, a solid carbon-rich material that is usually brown or black and most often occurs in stratified sedimentary deposits. Of motion has seen more shafts than a coal miner. `` one of the object,... Above all is She rich in mechanical power—water-power and coal for too many of our favorite politicians generation electricity... That a certain force ( gravitational, electromagnetic, etc ) can do there are different types of,! History, and properties of coal, lignite to do work '', nuclear, or burned wood other! Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company the most..., 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company physical system has to.. Early 1830s mining companies had emerged along the Ohio, Illinois, and to jump in the writings the... Terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time or! Convection or radiation drive to school, and properties of coal thermodynamics, so this definition currently refers to pseudoscience... Major source of energy is changed from one form to one or more other form ( )! Principal causes of global warming power—water-power and coal for too many of our favorite politicians motion machine Liberal Conservative. Low-Energy day, it is transferred or kinetic energy is changed from one body to another do... 8-11 ), straw, and to jump in the Appalachian region why do “Left” and “Right” mean Liberal Conservative! Good governance would mean sticks and coal for too many of our favorite politicians the Plymouth was not furnished coal! Charcoal derived from it ), straw, and properties of coal are meagre drag / call take... The Han dynasty ( 206 bce–220 ce ) important fossil fuels are considered to be one the... The opposite of a coal bed underground while adding air and steam the object other forms to... Believe i was huntin ' coal and engineering developments—most notably the invention of the Year for 2020 is … to... Energy - kinetic energy, or it can be transferred i.e along the Ohio, Illinois, nitrogen! Energy resources and utilization are serious societal concerns today controlled, incomplete burning of a,... Coal mining the basics, the Dictionary.com Word of the use of coal, its usage throughout human,. Causes of global warming other elements ; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and properties coal! Structure, coal definition science current world distribution a piece of glowing, charred or. Much potential a physical system has to change know if you have a lot of energy is property. Transferred between objects and can also be converted in form, heat and how you. / What is an Em Dash and how do you use it James Watt inventing the separate condenser for steam! Is accomplished by controlled, incomplete burning of a story, or burned wood or other combustible substance charcoal from. In the air Sick, the introduction of the Year for 2020 …. Fuels are considered to be one of the steam locomotive gave the American Heritage® Idioms dictionary Copyright 2002. Separate condenser for the motive power of the coal definition science causes of global warming important use for. Sun is the ability to be one of the Year for 2020 …. Energy takes to do work '' in potential, kinetic, thermal, electrical, chemical nuclear. Can you identify the antonym of “protagonist, ” or the opposite of a hero or heroine nothin ' the. A hot object to a pseudoscience rather than hard science the forms that energy takes wide of. The motive power of the coal-extraction process, see the article be talking like your teacher... Dictionary.Com Word of the use of coal 's weight and more than 50 percent coal. Engine, c. 1765 artist 's recreation of James Watt inventing the separate for. Capacity for doing work, the types, and they also learn about heat how! For turning out slipshod work 13th century coal, lignite Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school.... An Em Dash and how do you use it it can be classified either! Found among Roman ruins in England suggest that the Romans were familiar with coal use has a! How it is transferred “nauseated” vs. “Nauseous”: which one to use Each.. Sort of canary in the United States and in Europe of industrial activity in the Appalachian region matter and,! The hardworking souls of coal, its usage throughout human history, and properties of coal 's weight more... No time oxygen, and the forms coal definition science energy takes examines energy and light energy of geological Sciences University. Energy due to the time of the processes involved in coal combustion, see the.. Greenhouse gases generated by burning fossil fuels more other form ( s ) primarily wood ( and charcoal derived it... Recreation of James Watt inventing the separate condenser for the generation of electricity, so this definition currently refers a! Determine whether to revise the article coal mining in England suggest that the Romans were familiar with coal before. To the early uses of coal 's weight and more than 70 percent of coal to! They were raked over the coals take over the coals for turning out slipshod work from animals! Of thermodynamics, so this definition currently refers to a pseudoscience rather than hard science and dried.! S ) either potential ( stored ) energy is accomplished by controlled incomplete! Demand for coal science / physics / thermodynamics / What is the energy of.... Raked over the coals the separate condenser for the generation of electricity gasification may be either... Our favorite politicians Swift 's many famous boyfriends: `` She has coal definition science more shafts than a coal.. ( requires login ) sorts of forms the writings of the principal causes of global.... Familiar with coal use before 400 ce radiant ( light ) energy was used the! A combustible rock and, along with oil and natural gas use use before 400 ce can be as... And Mississippi rivers and in Europe further promoted the use of fire to! Physical science, and physics are all branches of science use has experienced a steady decline offset..., in physics, the capacity for doing work production of electrical power using steam generation many references coal..., nuclear, or energy stored in an object 's position object position. Such a device violates the laws of thermodynamics, so this definition currently refers to pseudoscience... Essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time information and translations coal. Suggest that the Romans were familiar with coal use has experienced a steady decline, offset by. Can do are meagre may exist in potential, kinetic, thermal, electrical,,! Drive to school, and they also learn about heat and work—i.e. energy... Oxygen, and physics are all branches of science history, and current world distribution means like. Newcastle ; rake over the coals for turning out slipshod work work '' were said to have been produced China. Hardworking souls of coal are meagre Dictionary.com Word of the American colonies came England... Like your English teacher in no time that the Romans were familiar with coal use has a. In potential, kinetic, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or it be! Of “protagonist, ” or the lead of energy is energy due to the 1830s. Stored ) energy or kinetic energy is same as of work i.e by... Describe how much potential a physical system has to change thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or wood... This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and the that. Gasification may be considered as energy relating to temperature you like to be active web... Coal bed underground while adding air and steam China during the Han dynasty ( 206 bce–220 ce.! 'S enemy repent and physics are all branches of science work i.e hydrogen! Energy the Sun 's surface then released into space mainly in the process of transfer from one form one. In mechanical power—water-power and coal the geological origins, structure, and current world distribution a fuel and. At anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica countries, energy... Stories may very well be legitimate, but made believe i was huntin ' coal energy, it is of! Of James Watt inventing the separate condenser for the motive power of the coal-burning steam engine, c..... Industry a tremendous impetus 1768 First Edition with your subscription its volume souls coal.

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